late 19th, early 20th century drugstore or druggists lithographed tin storage container used in the protection of pressed herbs and other botanic drugs. the beautifully designed antique tin remains in good shape, with original lid intact. manufactured for parke-davis, which was a pharmaceutical company originally founded in detroit, michigan by dr. samuel p. duffield, a physician and pharmacist. a partnership of dr. duffield and hervey coke parke was formed in 1866, with george s. davis becoming a third partner in 1867. duffield withdrew in 1869, and the name parke, davis & company was formally adopted in 1871, being incorporated in 1875. it was once the world's largest pharmaceutical company, and is credited with building the first modern pharmaceutical laboratory and developing the first systematic methods of performing clinical trials of new medications. one of parke-davis' early products was an amylase isolated from aspergillus oryzae by dr. jokichi takamine. the enzyme was originally intended for use in distilleries, but was more successfully marketed as "taka-diastase" for dyspepsia. they also developed ketalar (ketamine hydrochloride), a general anesthetic and dissociative drug, in 1962. in addition, parke-davis distributed coley's toxins, the first cancer vaccine, which was developed by william coley to treat osteosarcoma. in addition, the company entered into a distribution agreement with the inoculation department of st mary's (london) and distributed a number of vaccines for infectious diseases and even acne and cancer. another of the company's products developed by takamine was a pure form of adrenaline. the compound was patented in 1900 and trademarked as "adrenalin". because of the similarity of this name to "adrenaline", the use of the alternative name "epinephrine" for generics was mandated in the united states and is used to this day. like bayer with heroin; before the criminalization of cocaine, the drug was sold by parke-davis in various forms, including cigarettes, powder, and even a cocaine mixture that could be injected directly into the users veins with the included needle. the company promised that its cocaine products would "supply the place of food, make the coward brave, the silent eloquent and ... render the sufferer insensitive to pain." in october 1915, aleister crowley, author of diary of a drug fiend and the confessions of aleister crowley, stopped by parke-davis in detroit, where, according to crowley, the cooperation was complete. "[they] were kind enough to interest themselves in my researches in anhalonium lewinii (peyote) and made me some special preparations on the lines indicated by my experience which proved greatly superior to previous preparations." phencyclidine (pcp) was first patented in the 1950s by the parke-davis pharmaceutical company. parke-davis marketed the first widely available epilepsy treatment, dilantin, which was approved in 1939, although it discovered neither the compound nor the application on its own. the first bacterial vaccine was developed by parke-davis, and the company was thus known as a pioneer in the field of vaccinology. it was also among the five firms contracted to manufacture the salk vaccine used to eradicate polio.