original early 20th century american ceiling mount pendant bare bulb fixture salvaged from a new york city subway station interior. the old industrial style electric fixture is comprised of solid bronze with brass-plated finish (found primarily along the central tubular square stem). the original brown glazed standard base ceramic socket and reinforced cloth cord wiring remains intact. very simple yet elegant design, with a flattened contoured socket housing and ceiling plate. exact fabricator unknown. from 1901 to 1908, architects john l. heins, christopher grant lafarge, and squire j. vickers designed the first subway stations, control houses, power substations and ornamental kiosks, in the popular beaux-arts style, evoking classical architecture using ceramics, metal, and wood. these men created the decorative motifs that adorned the subways, allowing each station to be unique while contributing to its overall style. because heins & lafarge began working more than a year after subway construction began, their primary duty was to decorate and make beautiful the stark utilitarian spaces built by engineers achieved by using ceramic tiles, bronze light fixtures, mosaics ornamental ironwork, and terra cotta reliefs in the form of unique station plaques used to identify and adorn each station. because an immense amount of ceramics had to be designed, fabricated, and installed in less than three years, numerous companies were hired to produce these pieces, including, but not limited to, the grueby faience company of boston, atlantic terra cotta of staten island and new jersey, and rookwood pottery company of cincinnati. determined the aesthetics of new york’s subway system. in 1907, heins died of meningitis. though he would work as an architect until his death in 1938, lafarge worked on the subway only until 1908. architect, squire j. vickers, was then hired and become the architect responsible for new york’s subway station’s design elements for the next four decades. in general, each subway station finish consisted of a sanitary cove base that made the transition from floor to wall, upon which rested a brick or marble wainscot for the first two and one-half feet or so of wall area. this wainscot was applied to withstand the hard usage that the lower wall would be subjected to. the wainscot was completed by either a brick or marble cap, and the remainder of the wall area was covered with three by six-inch white glass tiles, completed near the ceiling by a cornice or frieze. the wall area was divided into fifteen foot panels, the same spacing as the platform columns, by the use of colored tiles or mosaic "in order to relieve the monotony that a plain-tiled surface would present."37 the full station name appeared on large tablets of either mosaic tile, faience, or terra-cotta at frequent intervals, while smaller name plaques were incorporated into the cornice every fifteen feet. sharp corners were eliminated and junctions between walls were curved to prevent chipping and facilitate cleaning. ceilings were finished in one-inch thick white plaster applied to wire lath hung on channel irons at intervals of twelve inches. the channel irons were secured to beams and girders with metal clips, with a minimum one-inch air space left between the finished ceiling and the structural roof. the lath and plaster either followed the contours of the jack arches, with ornamental moldings in low relief accentuating the beams, or were suspended flat with ornamental moldings dividing them into panels. reference only.